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What is Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes mellitus is a serious condition where individuals have high blood sugar levels. This is caused by the body’s inability to produce or respond to insulin.

Diabetes mellitus is a serious condition where individuals have high blood sugar levels. This is caused by the body’s inability to produce or respond to insulin. The three most common forms of diabetes mellitus are type 1, type 2, and gestational. All three types are dangerous and potentially life-threatening if not properly treated. Common symptoms include excess thirst, hunger, blurry vision, and frequent urination. Over an extended period of time, diabetes can cause blindness, kidney failure, and nerve and damage.



Diabetes mellitus type 1 is caused by the body’s inability to produce enough insulin. Insulin is the hormone that regulates the levels of glucose in blood and cells. Diabetes complicates the body’s natural ability to convert food into energy. Type 1 usually appears in children and young adults and was once known as juvenile diabetes for this reason. Type 1 is treated with insulin injections through insulin therapy. Insulin is injected into the body with a syringe, pen or pump. Eating healthy meals, snacks and living an active lifestyle also helps regulate type 1 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes mellitus, also referred to as adult-onset or non-insulin dependent diabetes, is the most common form of this condition found. This kind can develop at any age but is most commonly found in adults. It is also genetic which means it can be seen within families. Type 2 occurs when the body resists insulin and uses it improperly. This kind of diabetes mellitus is usually caused by obesity and inactivity, although, some individuals with this condition are not overweight. Type 2 can be treated with proper diet and exercise. Many individuals are required to change their lifestyle and eating habits to help regulate their blood sugar levels. There are also oral medications that are available through prescription.

Gestational diabetes mellitus is similar to type 2 diabetes. Half of all women who experience gestational diabetes will develop type 2 diabetes later in life. If untreated, this condition can cause complications towards both the mother and the fetus. A woman who undergoes standard prenatal care will be screened for gestational diabetes between the 24th and 28th weeks of pregnancy. Some of the risks towards the fetus include high birth weight, fetal distress, and even death. Most cases of gestational diabetes can be managed by a healthy diet low in carbohydrates along with moderate exercise. Only 10% of women with gestational diabetes require insulin injections.

One can detect diabetes mellitus through simple medical tests. The most common tests used are the fasting plasma glucose test (FPG), the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), and the random plasma glucose test. The FPG measures the amount of glucose in the blood of a person who has not eaten in at least eight hours. The OGTT measures the amount of glucose in the blood of a person who has not eaten for at least eight hours but has consumed a sugary beverage (Glucola) two hours previously. A random plasma glucose test measures blood glucose levels whether a person has eaten or not.

People who suffer from diabetes mellitus can live healthy and productive lives once the condition is diagnosed and treated. Even though severe risks and complications are involved, those with this disease are not alone. Advancements in medicine and awareness have allowed people with diabetes mellitus to live without fear of the

Different Types of Diabetes




The three main types of diabetes are type 1, type 2, and gestational diabetes. There is also a condition known as “pre-diabetes”. Those who suffer from pre-diabetes have higher than normal glucose levels; however, their levels are not yet high enough for a diagnosis of diabetes. Those with this condition have a very high risk of developing type 2 diabetes later in life. Pre-diabetes is rarely treated with insulin and can usually be controlled, if not reversed, with diet and exercise.

Type 1 diabetes


Type 1 diabetes occurs when a person loses a drastic number of insulin-producing cells in his or her pancreas. Type 1 diabetes is rarely caused by obesity and often occurs in children and young adults who do not have any serious health problems. Because this is the most common type of diabetes that affects children, it is often referred to as “juvenile diabetes”. Those with type 1 diabetes must monitor their blood sugar levels and regularly receive insulin therapy. They must also exercise regularly and keep their weight at a healthy level.

Very severe forms of type 1 diabetes are often referred to as “brittle diabetes”. Brittle diabetes is diagnosed when a person suffers from dramatic, unexplainable, and recurring swings in his or her glucose levels. This condition most often affects teenagers and young adults. At times, the term brittle diabetes is used to describe extremely severe cases of type 2 diabetes.

Type 2 diabetes

Type 2 diabetes


Type 2 diabetes occurs when a person’s body builds an insulin resistance and when his or her pancreas cannot secrete insulin. The condition is often tied to excessive weight gain and can sometimes be controlled without insulin therapy. The common treatments for this condition are weight loss, non-insulin drugs, and, if necessary, insulin therapy. Type 2 diabetes is hereditary and, although it is most commonly diagnosed in people over the age of 45, it can affect children and adults of all ages. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes in existence.

Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes


There is a type of diabetes called gestational diabetes the only affects pregnant mothers. This condition occurs when a woman, who does not have a history of blood sugar problems, begins experiencing high blood sugar levels whilst being pregnant. Although the levels are rarely high enough to pose an immediate risk for the mother, if gestational diabetes is left untreated, it may harm the unborn baby. Gestational diabetes can cause birth defects such as muscle malformations, cardiac and nervous system damage, and macrosomia.

Pregnant mothers with this type of diabetes need to constantly monitor their blood sugar levels throughout the pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is usually controlled with diet and exercise. There is, however, a small percentage of women who require insulin therapy. The woman’s blood sugar levels should return to normal after the baby is delivered. Unfortunately, gestational diabetes is usually a sign that both the mother and the child will develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

Different Types of Diabetes:

  1. What is Type 1 Diabetes
  2. What is Type 2 Diabetes
  3. Gestational Diabetes
  4. Diabetes Insipidus
  5. Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes

What is Type 1 Diabetes

What is Type 1 Diabetes


In order the understand what Type 1 diabetes is we need to examine and understand some basic concepts of how the body functions when healthy.

First, the human body is a remarkable machine capable of functioning well in the course of a person’s lifetime. If the body remains healthy and can maintain its own homeostasis (the body’s ability to maintain its own internal balance), the person can lead a healthy productive life free of illness or disease. When illness or disease does occur the body’s homeostasis is out of balance. Such is the case with diabetes, a disease that destroys and disables more lives each year, especially in the United States. There are three types of diabetes but we shall examine the least common most dangerous of the three and that is Type 1 diabetes.

Type 1 diabetes


Type 1 diabetes or juvenile diabetes is in a class commonly called – Diabetes Mellitus which means excessive sweet urine or the medical term-glycosuria. This disease occurs in children and young adults afflicting between 5 to 10% of the population of the United States and is projected to rise substantially in the coming years. Symptoms include increased constant thirst, frequent urination, and weight loss. In diabetes, people are unable to use glucose in the foods they eat for energy. This glucose accumulates in the bloodstream eventually damaging the organs of the heart, kidneys, eyes, and nerves.

This is an autoimmune disease meaning the immune system of the body is not functioning. This is caused by a loss of insulin (the hormone that regulates energy and glucose metabolism in the body. Insulin causes cells in the liver, muscles, and fat tissues to take up glucose which is a simple sugar or carbohydrate from the blood and stores it as glycogen (energy) in the liver and muscles). This loss of insulin means that the beta cells (cells that make and release insulin the hormone that controls the level of glucose in the blood of the islets of Langerhans (the regions of the pancreas that controls the hormone-producing cells) is leading to insulin deficiency.

The deficiency of the beta cells in the pancreas are allowing the T-cells (white blood cells that regulate and remove harmful pathogens from the blood and help in the maturation of B cells into plasma cells) to attack the beta cells. Without proper insulin, the body cannot use sugar and fat and therefore the energy the cells, tissues, and organs need to function are deprived of this energy. Like all types of diabetes, this is a chronic disease that if untreated can lead to devastating disabilities and death.

Treatment for Type 1 Diabetes

Treatment for Diabetes

Treatment for Type 1 diabetes includes regular insulin injections and constant regular monitoring of blood glucose levels. This is a disease that cannot be cured but only watched and controlled. With proper continuing monitoring and treatment patient’s can live normal, healthy, productive lives. But there is one problem and that is the symptoms of diabetes are a lot of times ignored and about one-third of patients do not get diagnosed in time to prevent serious health consequences.

This is leading to health professionals classifying diabetes as an epidemic that will only continue to grow in the years to come unless more preventive measures, education, and new treatment methods are developed.

What is Type 2 Diabetes


Diabetes is a disease in which the body either fails to produce insulin or the body does not use the insulin properly. Ideally, our bodies break down what we digest and turn the sugars and starches into glucose. This glucose uses insulin to give us energy. Without insulin, the glucose builds up in our blood and causes complications and damage within our body.

Type 2 diabetes

What is Type 2 Diabetes

Type 2 diabetes is the result of when the body produces insulin, but it is not used properly. It is the most common form of diabetes and may even be the most preventable. While age or family history of the disease cannot be changed, major factors such as unhealthy eating habits and lack of exercise can be changed and ultimately reduce a person’s risk for developing complications associated with type 2 diabetes. Other risk factors for type 2 diabetes can include ethnicity. In the United States, African Americans and Mexican Americans appear to be among those at the highest risk.

However, some go undiagnosed until it is too late. Recognizing signs of diabetes and being screened are keys to catching the disease and properly managing it. It has been recommended that those at risk be screened starting at age 30 as an estimated one-third of the diabetic population does not know they have the disease. Along with being screened, people can watch out for warning signs such as extreme thirst or hunger that cannot be satisfied, frequent urination, headaches, dry mouth, and blurred vision. While rare, some people affected by type 2 diabetes experience fainting or loss of consciousness. Some diabetic sufferers remain undiagnosed until damage has been done to the body. This damage can be in the form of heart disease, nerve damage, stroke, vision problems, kidney failure, and the list goes on.

Upon speaking with a physician regarding any symptoms that a person may have, the physician may want to check the person’s blood glucose levels to determine if the person may have diabetes. If the physician requests a fasting glucose test, the patient will be required to not eat or drink anything for eight hours prior to the test. A small amount of blood is then drawn after the patient has fasted, and the glucose level is then checked. The amount of glucose is measured in milligrams per deciliter, and a normal fasting glucose level is typically between 70-100 mg/dL. If two or more separate tests are performed, and the glucose level is 126 mg/dL or greater, a diagnosis of diabetes can usually be made. Another test that may be performed does not require fasting. It is called the casual plasma glucose test. Just like the fasting test, a sample of blood is taken and the glucose level is tested. Since no fasting is required, the glucose level may be higher. If separate tests are performed with results indicating glucose levels of 200 mg/dL or higher, the person may have diabetes.


While type 2 diabetes does require lifestyle changes and proper management, it does not mean that someone with the disease cannot live a long, happy life. Monitoring glucose levels daily as well as healthy dieting and exercise can reduce complications associated with diabetes.
Gestational Diabetes

Gestational Diabetes


Gestational diabetes is a form of diabetes which occurs during pregnancy. A woman’s body goes through many changes during pregnancy. One of these changes can be the way the body processes glucose. Individuals receive their main source of fuel from glucose.

Gestational diabetes can cause harm to an unborn child. Most women are diagnosed during their 28 weeks of pregnancy. Gestational diabetes is less likely to cause harm to a pregnant mother. A mother produces high levels of glucose in her body with gestational diabetes, and will unable to absorb it fast enough. Gestational diabetes is a serious medical conditional and will need proper treatment from a health care provider. Those who are more likely to develop gestational diabetes are those who are overweight, have had large births prior to their pregnancy, and have a family history of the condition.

The condition can be managed by eating healthy foods and exercising. Some individuals may require medication treatment. Most women’s glucose levels will return to normal after their pregnancy. However, most women who develop gestational diabetes are more likely to develop type 2 diabetes later in life.

Most women that acquire gestational diabetes may not have any symptoms. Those who do have symptoms may notice an increase in being thirsty, or they may have to urinate more frequently. Urination occurs even if a woman has not taken in a significant amount of fluid.

It is recommended that individuals who are trying to get pregnant should get medical attention before pregnancy. Early detection of gestational diabetes can prevent severe health care problems in the future.

Problems that occur during gestational diabetes that could occur are preeclampsia and breathing problems with baby. Mothers who are diagnosed with the condition will be monitored throughout their pregnancy. The mother’s glucose levels will need to be monitored closely. Some individuals can purchase a glucose meter; this meter can be used for mothers to monitor their glucose levels at home. Individuals taken medication to treat gestational diabetes will also have to monitor their glucose levels to keep their sugar from dropping too low.

There are a lot of symptoms individuals will have to look for with low blood sugar such as, shakiness, losing consciousness, paleness and extreme hunger.

Untreated diabetes can cause a very unhealthy baby. The condition associated with gestational diabetes in babies is known as macrosomia. Some refer to macrosomia as a “fat” baby. These babies can grow uncontrollably in weight. Some babies have been known to weigh as much as 14pounds at birth. Gestational pregnancies can result in an emergency c-section. It depends on how large the baby is measuring. Babies with the condition have a lot of illnesses of their own. Babies who are affected by gestational diabetes are more likely to get type 2 diabetes.


Gestational diabetes should be treated as a serious medical condition. Women who suspect they may be at risk for having the condition should be tested by their health care provider. Only a health care provider can make the proper diagnosis, and decide what form of treatment a pregnant mom will need.

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus

Diabetes Insipidus is a disease classified as diabetes but not related to the common types of diabetes. It is the result of the body not producing, storing or releasing a key hormone ADH (antidiuretic hormone also called AVP arginine vasopressin. This is the hormone that affects the kidneys). The kidneys are unable to respond to this hormone causing a deficiency resulting in the condition known as diabetes insipidus. The kidneys are most effected therefore diabetes insipidus is primarily a kidney disease.

The characteristics of diabetes insipidus are excessive severe thirst (usually the person cannot get enough water and they mostly crave very cold water, ice water or justice) and excretion of large amounts of urine that is severely diluted. Persons with diabetes insipidus can excrete if the condition is mild, up to 2.6 quarts of urine per day or if severe up to 16 quarts and this will go on day and night frequently having to go to the bathroom. Even if the person has a reduced fluid intake this will not have an effect on the amount of urine excreted.

Diabetes insipidus includes two different types with the most common being central diabetes insipidus or CDI as it is called, caused by a deficiency of arginine vasopressin or AVP, the hormone that affects the kidneys also known as antidiuretic hormone or ADH. The second type is called nephrogenic diabetes insipidus. This is a disease of the kidney caused by an improper response of the kidney to the antidiuretic hormone (ADH) leading to a decreased ability of the kidney to concentrate urine. Diabetes insipidus is classified into four different classifications. They are neurogenic diabetes insipidus also known as central diabetes insipidus. This condition caused by a lack of vasopressin production in the brain is the most common type. Nephrogenic diabetes insipidus is the inability of the kidneys to respond to the antidiuretic hormone ADH. Dispogenic diabetes insipidus is due to a defect or damage in the hypothalamus of the brain that regulates thirst, and gestational diabetes insipidus only occurs in pregnancy when the pregnant woman produces too much vasopressin in the placenta thereby breaking down the antidiuretic hormone ADH resulting in an extreme form of gestational diabetes insipidus. The good news is that this type of diabetes generally leaves the woman within 4 to 6 weeks of giving birth. However, in some instances medical treatment is necessary.

Diagnosis of diabetes insipidus includes a battery of medical tests to determine if the patient has the condition and if so at what stage of severity has diabetes insipidus progressed to. The common tests conducted are the blood glucose test to determine the level of blood glucose in the blood, the bicarbonate (chemical acid) test to check for acidic levels in the blood, and the calcium test to determine calcium levels. Blood electrolytes are also measured and a urinalysis taken to determine diabetes insipidus present in urine. Unlike diabetes mellitus where there is a sweet smell of urine due to an excessive amount of glucose or polyuria with diabetes insipidus, there is no smell of sweetness in the urine. Persons with any of the common symptoms of diabetes should immediately be checked out for the possibility of diabetes insipidus or any other form of diabetes.

Treatment for diabetes insipidus is based on a drug regimen predicated on what classification of diabetes insipidus the patient has. With central and gestational diabetes insipidus the treatment is with the drug desmopressin which is a synthetic replacement for vasopressin. For nephrogenic diabetes insipidus treatment is with the diuretic hydrochlorothiazide a drug that acts to inhibit the kidney’s ability to retain water. Dispogenic diabetes insipidus the drug carbamazepine is used because it is an anticonvulsant and mood-stabilizing drug.

Difference Between Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes


Diabetes is a metabolic disorder that is typically a lifelong chronic illness. It occurs in men and women, adults and children. If the body is producing no insulin whatsoever, this condition is known as Type 1 diabetes. However, over 80 percent of all individuals diagnosed with diabetes have Type 2. This is the more common of the two.

Before taking a look at what differentiates each type of diabetes, it’s essential to know what this disease is. When the body cannot normally maintain insulin, this can lead to high levels of blood glucose. More than 20 million Americans suffer from some form of diabetes, and a shocking 6 million are unaware they are afflicted by this disease.

Individuals who have Type 1 diabetes might suffer from extreme fatigue and lethargy, along with an increase of thirst and urination. Quite often there will also be weight loss, even when the patient has a normal appetite and has been consuming a high level of calories.

In Type 2 diabetes, the body’s cellular structure is unresponsive to insulin. Other than feeling extremely tired, symptoms might include blurred vision and frequent thirst and urination. There is a two-step process to Type 2, in that not enough of a sufficient amount of insulin is being produced, and the insulin is not working accordingly.

People affected by Type 2 diabetes are often prone to infections from cuts and lesions. They may experience cuts that heal unusually slow or occasionally open sores that do not heal completely. On the other end of the spectrum, in many cases, Type 2 sufferers might not experience any particular symptoms at all. This is why it is extremely important for routine examinations that can identify problems and address issues early on.

Type 1 diabetes can begin with a sudden onset and the severity might warrant a trip to the hospital. If this condition goes on untreated for a long period, serious complications can result. These complications could include vision loss, kidney disease or even amputation of limbs. A prescription of regular insulin therapy will be needed to maintain life.



The main difference between Type 1 and Type 2 diabetes is the former is not preventable. It is not due to poor diet or obesity, as Type 2 is often attributed to. Conversely, with Type 2 diabetes, the patient has typically been in an unfit condition for a long period of time, and most often overweight as well.

While Type 1 typically will require insulin replacement, there is no known cure. However medical science has made significant advances in treatment, and if managed properly the patient can expect to live a relatively healthy life.

There are common misconceptions about this disease in both forms. Most commonly, people tend to believe diabetes is caused by consuming excessive sweets. This is untrue. Another misconception is when people assume there is a condition known as ‘borderline diabetes’. Again, this is a myth, as there is no such thing as having a ‘touch of diabetes’.

A health care provider can advise the patient with diabetes how to manage the condition. The main objective and goal is to carefully monitor blood glucose levels. This can be done through a personalized diet plan which should be strictly followed, as well as suggestions to improve fitness levels through regular exercise

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Cheap Gym Accessories: What is Diabetes Mellitus
What is Diabetes Mellitus
Diabetes mellitus is a serious condition where individuals have high blood sugar levels. This is caused by the body’s inability to produce or respond to insulin.
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